Background and Aims: Inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 activity regulates the maturation and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18. Recently, we showed that caspase-1 deficiency strongly reduces high fat diet-induced adiposity although the mechanism is still unclear. We now aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which caspase-1 deficiency reduces modulates resistance to high fat diet-feeding fat accumulation in adipose tissue by focusing on the role of caspase-1 in the regulation of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein metabolism. Methods: Caspase-1 deficient and wild-type mice (both C57Bl/6 background) were used to determine postprandial TG kinetics, intestinal TG absorption, VLDL-TG production as well as TG clearance, all of which strongly contribute to the supply of TG for storage in adipose tissue. Micro-array and qPCR analysis were used to unravel intestinal and hepatic metabolic pathways involved. Results: Caspase-1 deficiency reduced the postprandial response to an oral lipid load, while tissue specific clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins was not changed. Indeed, an oral olive oil gavage containing [3H]TG revealed that caspase-1 deficiency significantly decreased intestinal chylomicron-TG production and reduced the uptake of [3H]TG-derived FA by liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Similarly, caspase-1 deficiency reduced the hepatic VLDL-TG production without reducing VLDL-apoB production, despite an elevated hepatic TG content. Pathway analysis revealed that caspase-1 deficiency reduces intestinal and hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis. Conclusions: Absence of caspase-1 reduces assembly and secretion of TG-rich lipoproteins, thereby reducing the availability of TG-derived FA for uptake by peripheral organs including adipose tissue. We anticipate that caspase-1 represents a novel link between innate immunity and lipid metabolism.