We investigated the effect of a saturated (SFA) and a monounsaturated (MUFA) rich diet on insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue gene expression profiles of subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome. A controlled-feeding trial was performed with 20 moderately overweight subjects. Subjects received a SFA-rich or a MUFA-rich diet for 8 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained and insulin sensitivity was measured. Whole genome micro-array analysis was performed on the adipose tissue samples. Consumption of a SFA-rich diet resulted in a pro-inflammatory 'obese-like' gene expression profile while consumption of a MUFA-rich diet caused a more anti-inflammatory profile. This suggests that replacement of dietary SFA by MUFA could prevent adipose tissue inflammation and may reduce the risk for inflammation related diseases such as the metabolic syndrome.